Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt – Unit 8 – 1º ESO
The arithmetic is brutally simple. If fewer than 100 people control the same amount of wealth as the poorest 3.5 billion people on the planet, the result can be expressed in one word: Inequality.
The key to ending poverty lies not only in economic growth, but also in the importance of reducing inequality between those who have the most and those who have the least (the bottom 40%).
While economic growth has been key to improving the lives of the poorest and has allowed the incomes of the 40% most vulnerable in Latin America to improve more than the total population – compared to other regions – the distribution has not been entirely equitable.
One of the ways of measuring inequality is the Gini index, which identifies the extent to which income distribution is far from a perfectly equitable distribution. The indicator shows that Latin America is one of the regions with the highest degree of inequality in the world.
I visited the sacred temple of the rats in India
Occupying northeast Africa, Egypt is bisected by the fertile valley of the Nile River. Its economy was highly centralized during the period of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, but opened up during the governments of Presidents Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak.
After Nasser’s death, Anwar el-Sadat, following the failure of the Yom Kippur War, set himself the immediate goal of westernizing the economy and initiating a process of liberalization. This initiative was timid, because Egyptians were accustomed to obtaining basic commodities at affordable prices and the liberalization process generated excessive price hikes. In 1977, protests became widespread when the price of wheat rose dramatically.
The reorientation of the economy led Sadat to seek the support of the traditional rural elites, whose influence had declined under Nasserism. Farmers are expelled from the disputed lands. In the cities, to thwart Nasserist and Marxist organizations, Sadat has released thousands of Islamist prisoners and granted them political freedoms. In 1972, the authorities had Islamist militants transported in state vehicles to violently regain control of the universities and arrested leftist student leaders. The authorities have also been known to arrest and detain Islamist militants.
Ancient Egypt – 5 things you should know – History for
These expeditions and explorations of the same type under the pretext of hunts were certainly undertaken for purely scientific purposes. Their object was undoubtedly at once commercial and diplomatic, and they kept Meroe open to Ptolemaic influence. The main purposes, in my opinion, of these relations with Meroe, besides the protection of Egypt’s southern frontier, were to safeguard the gold mines of Nubia and to preserve the Meroitic supply of iron and gold for Egypt, and to protect the hunting expeditions which visited the country regularly under Philadelphus.
Elephants. No less valuable to the Ptolemies than the gold and iron of Nubia were the elephants of East Africa. It should be remembered that the use of elephants was the state of the art in military technique. The rivals of the Ptolemies -Seleucus and his descendants- had them in abundance and of the best quality, obtaining them from India. The Ptolemies could not bear to be inferior in this respect. The reputation of war elephants among the military experts of the day was very high and had not been diminished by their failure in the Pyrrhus expedition, for their sensational success when employed against the Celts had balanced failure in Italy. We have testimony to this in the confidence placed in these animals by a general of Hannibal’s stature. Now elephants were plentiful in Africa, and there was no reason why these beasts of Africa should not have been tamed and trained by expert trainers imported from India. Such were probably the considerations that led Philadelphus to undertake the training of a contingent of African elephants.
India’s most symbolic river
It is a classification that groups together those markets that are no longer developing countries but have not yet reached developed country status. However, it is a definition that is too relative and can lead to confusion. There is no international consensus on which countries are truly emerging or not.
Russia, for example, lacks great political stability and yet is considered BRICS. Egypt is considered an emerging market but also lacks political stability since the Arab Spring.
The most important thing is that the vast majority of emerging countries are not the “classic” countries of Western civilization (except in cases such as Argentina or Mexico of the Latin American Economic Area). From a religious point of view, we can also observe the increase in the specific weight of Hinduism, the different synic religions (Confucianism, Taoism…), of the “classical” Western civilization (except in cases such as Argentina or Mexico of the Latin American Economic Area).
Emerging markets, such as China and India, are beginning to be the main drivers of world growth. Virtually all internationally renowned economists agree that the future lies in the emerging markets.